Electron layer: K-L-M-N
Electron shell distribution: 2-8-18-1
Electronic arrangement type: 1S22S22P63S23P63D104S1
Atomic radius: 186pm
Van der Waals radius: 140pm
Reaction with oxygen:
Heavy metals copper is not too lively, not with dry oxygen in the air at room temperature, heating can produce black cupric oxide: if you continue at a high temperature burning, generate red Cu2O: with the reaction of the air (react with O2 and H2O, CO2) in the humid air after years of putting, will slowly to generate a layer of copper surface patina (alkaline copper carbonate), patina can prevent the metal corrosion further, its composition is variable.
Reaction with halogens:
Copper can combine with chlorine gas on ignition.
Reaction with sulfur:
When heated, copper and sulfur combine directly to produce cuprous sulfide (Cu2S) :
Reaction with ferric chloride solution:
In the electronics industry, FeCl3 solution is often used to etch copper to make printed circuits.
Reaction with acids:
Reaction with air and dilute acids:
In the potential order (metal activity order), the copper group elements are all behind the hydrogen, so the hydrogen in dilute acid cannot be replaced. But in the presence of air, copper can be oxidized to copper oxide, which then reacts with acids and slowly dissolves in these dilute acids. The equation is shown below:
Reaction with concentrated hydrochloric acid:
The reaction is consistent with the substitution reaction.
Reaction with oxidizing acids:
Copper will be dissolved by oxidation of oxidizing acids such as nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid (need to be heated).